Homogeneous catalysis

Homogeneous Catalysis

Homogeneous catalysis

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Description:
In chemistry, homogeneous catalysis is a sequence of reactions that involve a catalyst in the same phase as the reactants. Most commonly, a homogeneous catalyst is codissolved in a solvent with the reactants.

Examples

Acid catalysis

The proton is the most pervasive homogeneous catalyst because water is the most common solvent. Water forms protons by the process of self-ionization of water In an illustrative case, acids accelerate (catalyse) the hydrolysis of esters:
CH<sub>3</sub>CO<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>3</sub> + H<sub>2</sub>O <math>overrightarrow</math> CH<sub>3</sub>CO<sub>2</sub>H + CH<sub>3</sub>OH
In the absence of acids, aqueous solutions of most esters do not hydrolyze at practical rates.

Organometallic chemistry

Processes that utilize soluble organometallic compounds as catalysts fall under the category of homogenous catalysis, as opposed to processes that use bulk metal or metal on a solid support which are examples of heterogeneous catalysis. Some well-known examples of homogeneous catalysis include hydroformylation and transfer hydrogenation, as well as certain kinds of Ziegler-Natta polymerization and hydrogenation.

Many non-organometallic...
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