'''Hupa''' (also '''Hoopa'''; : '''''Natinixwe''''') refers to a Native American in northwestern . The official name of the tribe is the '''Hoopa Valley Tribe'''.
thumb|left|Hupa Indian Hupa are Native Americans
whose traditional land is Hoopa Valley
. Their heritage language, Hupa
, belongs to the Athabaskan language family
. Hupa tradition suggests that they have lived in Hoopa Valley for over 4,000 years. Some Hupa people also speak Yurok
In the 19th century, they occupied land stretching from the South Fork of the Trinity River
to Hoopa Valley, to the Klamath River
in California. Their red cedar
-planked houses, dugout canoes
, basket hats, and many elements of their oral literature
identify them with the Northwest Coast
culture, of which they are the southernmost representatives; however, some of their customs (the use of a sweat house for ceremonies and the manufacture of acorn bread) are not characteristic of that culture area.
In 1864, the United States government
signed a treaty that recognized the Hupa tribe's sovereignty to their land. The United States
called the reservation the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation
(located at ), where the Hupa now reside. The reservation is next to the territory of the Yurok
at the connection of the Klamath and Trinity Rivers in northeastern Humboldt County
. The reservation has a land area of 141.087 sq mi (365.413 km²).
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in......