Hypervalent molecule

Hypervalent Molecule

Hypervalent molecule

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A hypervalent molecule is a molecule that contains one or more main group elements formally bearing more than eight electrons in their valence shells. Phosphorus pentachloride (PCl<sub>5</sub>), sulfur hexafluoride (SF<sub>6</sub>), the phosphate (PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3−</sup>) ion, chlorine trifluoride (ClF<sub>3</sub>) and the triiodide (I<sub>3</sub><sup>−</sup>) ion are examples of hypervalent molecules.

Definitions and nomenclature

Hypervalent molecules were first formally defined by Jeremy I. Musher in 1969 as molecules having central atoms of group 15-18 in any oxidation state other than the lowest.

Several specific classes of hypervalent molecules exist:

N-X-L notation

N-X-L nomenclature, introduced in 1980,Perkins,C. W.; Martin, J. C.; Arduengo, A....
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