Iberian Union

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The Iberian union was a political unit that governed all of the Iberian Peninsula south of the Pyrenees from 1580–1640, through a dynastic union between the monarchies of Portugal and Spain.António Henrique R. de Oliveira Marques, History of Portugal. 1972, page 322. Boris Fausto, A Concise History of Brazil, page 40. Following the Portuguese crisis of succession, a dynastic union joined both crowns, along with their respective colonial possessions, under the control of the Spanish monarchy. The term Iberian union is a creation of modern historians.

The unification of the peninsula had long been a goal of the region's monarchs. Sancho III of Navarre and Alfonso VII of León and Castile both took the title Imperator totius Hispaniae, meaning "Emperor of All Hispania"Notice that, before the emergence of the modern country of Spain (beginning with the dynastic union of Castile and Aragon in 1479, followed by political unification in 1516), the Latin word Hispania, in any of the Iberian Romance languages, either in singular or plural forms (), was used to refer to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula, and not exclusively, as in modern usage, to the country of Spain, thus excluding Portugal. centuries before. The union could have been achieved earlier had Miguel da Paz (1498–1500), Prince of Portugal and Asturias, become king. He died early in his childhood.

The history of Portugal from the dynastic crisis in 1578 to the...
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