The Indus Valley desert covers an area of 19,500 square kilometers (7,500 square miles) in northwestern Punjab Province between the Chenab and Indus rivers. The Indus Valley Desert is drier and less hospitable than the Northwestern thorn scrub forests that surround it with temperatures ranging from freezing in winter to extremely hot (more than 45°)in summer with only 600-800mm of rainfall per year.
The desert vegatation is quite varied due to the variety of temperatures with Prosopis shrubs being the characteristic species.
The desert is home to four large mammals: Wolf, hyena, caracal, leopard and the Urial(Ovis orientalis punjabensis) along with many rodents and other mammals. Meanwhile the 190 species of bird in the desert include the Red-necked Falcon.
Threats and preservation
Like the nearby Thar Desert the Indus Valley desert has little farming or grazing due to its hard climate and therefore the natural habitats are almost intact. However hunting still goes on and is a threat to caracals, wolves and other mammals.