Inertial wave

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Inertial waves, also known as inertial oscillations, are a type of mechanical wave possible in rotating fluids. Unlike surface gravity waves commonly seen at the beach or in the bathtub, inertial waves travel through the interior of the fluid, not at the surface. Like any other kind of wave, an inertial wave is caused by a restoring force and characterized by its wavelength and frequency. Because the restoring force for inertial waves is the Coriolis force, their wavelengths and frequencies are related in a peculiar way. Inertial waves are transverse. Most commonly they are observed in atmospheres, oceans, lakes, and laboratory experiments. Rossby waves, geostrophic currents, and geostrophic winds are examples of inertial waves. Inertial waves are also likely to exist in the core of the Earth.

Restoring force

To understand the idea of a restoring force, imagine a guitar string. In equilibrium, the string is taut and straight, held stationary between its ends. Plucking the string moves it away from this equilibrium position. The tension in the string immediately pulls it back toward equilibrium, but soon overshoots, so that the string bows in the opposite direction. Next, tension again pulls the string back toward equilibrium, but again overshoots, and the cycle continues until the string finally comes to rest. Since tension restores the string to equilibrium (overshooting many times along the way), it is called the restoring force. Without it, the string would not vibrate,...
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