Islamic state

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An Islamic state (Arabic: الدولة الإسلامية, al-dawla al-islamiyya) is a type of government, in which the primary basis for government is Islamic religious law. From the early years of Islam, numerous governments have been founded as "Islamic", beginning most notably with the Caliphate established by Mohammad himself and including subsequent governments ruled under the direction of a caliph (meaning, "successor" to the prophet Mohammad).

However, the term "Islamic state" has taken on a more specific modern connotation since the 20th century. The concept of the modern Islamic state has been articulated and promoted by ideologues such as Abul Ala Maududi, Ayatollah Ruhallah Khomeini, and Sayyid Qutb. Like the earlier notion of the caliphate, the modern Islamic state is rooted in Islamic law. It is modeled after the rule of Mohammad. However, unlike caliph-led governments which were imperial despotisms or monarchies (Arabic: "mulk"), a modern Islamic state can incorporate modern political institutions such as elections, parliamentary rule, judicial review, and popular sovereignty.

The Historical Islamic state

Early Islamic Governments

The term caliphate refers to the first system of government established by Mohammad in 622 CE, under the Constitution of Medina. It represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah (nation), although it did not always incorporate the full religious community of Muslims (for example,......
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