Edward III of England
is "often described as the ancestor of the British upper-middle class"Burke's Presidential Families of the USA
, 1981 through his sons John of Gaunt
, Lionel of Antwerp
, Edmund of Langley
and Thomas of Woodstock
. All of Edward's legitimate children were by Philippa of Hainault
The Wars of the Roses
were fought between the different factions of Edward III's descendants. The following list outlines the genealogical background of that conflict.
The Wars of the Roses were a civil war over the throne of the Kingdom of England
fought among the descendants of King Edward III through his five surviving adult sons. Each branch of the family had competing claims through seniority, legitimacy, and/or the sex of their ancestors.
(1) Edward, the Black Prince
), Duke of Cornwall
, Prince of Wales
The eldest son of Edward III predeceased his father and never became king. Edward's only surviving child was Richard II
who ascended to the throne but produced no heirs. Richard II designated as his heir presumptive
his cousin Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March
, senior heir of the female line, the grandson of Lionel of Antwerp
, but this succession never took place as Richard II was eventually deposed and succeeded by another of Richard's cousins, Henry Bolingbroke (who ascended as Henry IV
), who was senior heir of the male line.
(2) William of Hatfield
(16 February 1337 – 8 July 1337), buried at York Minster
(3) Lionel of......