Dalrymple is most remembered for his part in the 1692 Massacre of Glencoe. In 1695, the Scottish parliament demanded an enquiry into the massacre, and when the report from the enquiry was complete, they voted that "the killing of the Glencoe men was murder". Responsibility for the crime lay with the King's Scottish ministers, but King William was guilty of a "great breach of duty" (Macaulay's words) in shielding the Master of Stair from any punishment beyond dismissal from the Secretaryship of State. He returned to government in 1700 as a member of the Privy Council of Scotland. The Master of Stair, was created first Earl of Stair in 1703 by Queen Anne.