Judiciary of Vietnam

Judiciary Of Vietnam

Judiciary of Vietnam

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At the apex of the judiciary of Vietnam is the Supreme People’s Court of Vietnam (SPC), which is the highest court for appeal and review. The SPC reports to the National Assembly of Vietnam, which controls the judiciary’s budget and confirms the president’s nominees to the SPC and Supreme People’s Procuracy of Vietnam. The Supreme People’s Procuracy issues arrest warrants, sometimes retroactively. Below the SPC are district and provincial people’s courts, military tribunals, and administrative, economic, and labor courts. The people’s courts are the courts of first instance. The Ministry of Defense (MOD) has military tribunals, which have the same rules as civil courts. Military judges and assessors are selected by the MOD and SPC, but the SPC has supervisory responsibility. Although the constitution provides for independent judges and lay assessors (who lack administrative training), the U.S. Department of State maintains that Vietnam lacks an independent judiciary, in part because the Vietnamese Communist Party (VCP) selects judges and vets them for political reliability. Moreover, the party seeks to influence the outcome of cases involving perceived threats to the state or the party’s dominant position. In an effort to increase judicial independence, the government transferred local courts from the Ministry of Justice to the SPC in September 2002. However, the Department of State saw no evidence that the move actually achieved the stated goal. Vietnam’s...
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