Atatürk's conception of realism and pragmatism have been the foundation of Kemalism. There are six fundamental pillars of the ideology. Secularism and reformism principles were accepted and entered into the constitution following the first four. The principles came to be recognized as unchangeable and sacrosanct. These principles were formulated and applied but not defined as an ideology during the life of Atatürk.
Republicanism () Kemalist ideology replaced the absolutism of the monarchy (Ottoman Dynasty) with the rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue with an emphasis on liberty practiced by citizens. Kemalist republicanism defines a constitutional republic, where representatives of the people are elected and must govern according to existing constitutional law that limits the government's power over citizens. The head(s) of state and other officials are chosen by election, rather than inheriting their positions, and their decisions are subject to judicial review. In defending the change from Ottoman State, Kemalism claims that all laws of Republic of Turkey should be inspired by actual needs here on Earth as a basic fact of national... Read More