a transition period: at the start of the period, the language was generally virtually identical to Classical Ancient Greek
, whereas in the end the language had phonologically a lot more in common with Modern Greek
than Ancient Greek.
The most significant changes during the Koine Greek period concerned vowels
: these were the loss of vowel length
distinction, the substitution of the Ancient Greek system
of pitch accent
with a stress accent
system, and the monophthongalization
(except and ). These changes seem widely attested from the 2nd century BC in Egyptian Greek, and in the early 2nd century AD in learned Attic inscriptions; it is therefore likely that they were already common in the 2nd century BC and generalized no later than the 2nd century AD.
Another change was the fricatization
of the second element of diphthongs and . This change likely took place after the vocalic changes described above occurred. It is attested in Egyptian Greek starting from the 1st century AD, and seems to have been generalized in the late Roman period.
Another series of changes was the fricatization of voiced plosives
, which is widely attested in Egyptian Greek starting from the 1st century AD, but may have been generalized at a later date, possibly in the late Roman or early Byzantine periods.
Yet another series of changes was the fricatization of aspirated
voiceless plosives, which is attested in several locations from the 1st century AD,... Read More