Landslide dam

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Description:
A landslide dam, debris dam, or barrier lake is a natural damming of a river by some kind of mass wasting: landslide, debris flow, rock avalanche or volcano. If it is caused by earthquake, it may also be called a quake lake. Some landslide dams are as high as the largest existing artificial dam.

Causes

The major causes for landslide dams investigated by 1986 are landslides from excessive precipitation and earthquakes, which account for 84%. Volcanic eruptions account for a further 7% of dams. R.B. Jansen refers to Schuster R.L. and Costa J.E., "A Perspective on Landlside Dams", in Landslide Dams by the American Society of Civil Engineers, 1986, pp. 1-20. Other causes of landslides account for the remaining 9%.

Consequences

The water impounded by a landslide dam may create a dam reservoir (lake) that may last from short times to several thousand years.

Because of their rather loose nature and absence of controlled spillway, landslide dams frequently fail catastropically and lead to downstream flooding, often with high casualties. A common failure scenario is overflowing with subsequent dam breach and erosion by the overflow stream.

Landslide dams are responsible for two types of......
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