LDL receptor

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Description:
The Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor is a mosaic protein of ~840 amino acids (after removal of signal peptide) that mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich LDL. It is a cell-surface receptor that recognizes the apoprotein B100 which is embedded in the phospholipid outer layer of LDL particles. The receptor also recognizes the apoE protein found in chylomicron remnants and VLDL remnants (IDL). In humans, the LDL receptor protein is encoded by the LDLR gene. It belongs to the Low density lipoprotein receptor gene family.

Brown and Goldstein won a Nobel Prize for their identification of the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) receptor in 1985 while they were studying familial hypercholesterolemia.

Clinical significance

LDL is directly involved in the development of atherosclerosis, due to accumulation of LDL-cholesterol in the blood. Atherosclerosis is the process responsible for the majority of cardiovascular diseases.

Function

LDL receptor complexes are present in clathrin-coated pits (or buds) on the cell surface, which when bound to LDL-cholesterol via adaptin, are pinched off to form clathrin-coated vesicles inside the cell. This allows LDL-cholesterol to be bound and...
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