A trio of factors including an aberrant intestinal microbiota, a "leaky" intestinal mucosal barrier, and altered intestinal immune responsiveness are hypothesised to play a role in the failure to form tolerance, resulting in the autoimmunity that underlies type 1 diabetes.
A lack of mucosal integrity (leaky gut) with consecutive local and systemic inflammation and dysfunction of transport proteins may worsen the clinical symptoms of chronic heart failure. A 'leaky' bowel wall may lead to translocation of bacteria and/or endotoxin, which may be an important stimulus for inflammatory cytokine activation. Although it remains unclear whether increased adherent bacteria in patients with chronic heart failure are a primary or secondary event and whether they contribute to systemic inflammation. Further studies are needed to... Read More