Note: Signing is optional, indicating an intention to ratify the Protocol. Ratification means that an Annex I party (e.g. a developed country or one with an 'economy in transition') has agreed to cap emissions in accordance with the Protocol. 38 of the 39 Annex I parties have agreed to cap their emissions in this way, two others are required to do so under their conditions of accession into the EU, and one more intends to become an Annex I party.
Signed but not intending to ratify
No position expressed yet
As of 2010 no position is expressed by the following states: