Logic

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Logic (from the Greek λογική logikē)"possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative", also related to λόγος (logos), "word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle" (Liddell & Scott 1999; Online Etymology Dictionary 2001). is the formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies. In philosophy, the study of logic figures in most major areas: epistemology, ethics, metaphysics. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. Logic is also studied in argumentation theory.

Logic was studied in several ancient civilizations, including the Indian subcontinent,For example, Nyaya (syllogistic recursion) dates back 1900 years. ChinaMohists and the school of Names date back at 2200 years. and Greece. Logic was established as a discipline by Aristotle, who gave it a fundamental place in philosophy. The study of logic was part of the classical trivium, which also included grammar and rhetoric.

Logic is often divided into two parts, inductive reasoning and deductive......
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