London and Paris Conferences

London And Paris Conferences

London and Paris Conferences

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The London and Paris Conferences were two related conferences in London and Paris in late September and October 1954 to determine the status of West Germany. The nine participating powers were the 5 signatories of the Brussels Treaty (France, the United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands), West Germany, Italy, Canada, and the United States.

Belgium was represented by Paul-Henri Spaak, Canada by Lester B. Pearson, France by Pierre Mend├Ęs-France, Germany by Konrad Adenauer, Italy by Gaetano Martino, Luxembourg by Joseph Bech, the Netherlands by Jan Willem Beyen, the United Kingdom by Anthony Eden, and the United States by John Foster Dulles.


The meeting was called after the failure of the European Defense Community (EDC), which had proposed a Western European military force to defend the non-communist nations against Soviet aggression rather than admitting Germany into NATO. Previous agreements, including the General Treaty (), had established the EDC as a prerequisite for the end of Allied occupation and Germany's rearmament and its failure was a significant roadblock.


At the London Conference, often called the Nine-Power Conference (not to be confused with the Nine Power Treaty), it was agreed that the occupying powers would make every effort to end the occupation. Germany would also accede to the Washington Treaty (North Atlantic Treaty) and, along with Italy, the Brussels Treaty. The status of Saarland, which had been essentially...
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