Lower motor neuron lesion

Lower Motor Neuron Lesion

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Lower motor neuron lesion

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Description:
A lower motor neuron lesion is a lesion which affects nerve fibers traveling from the anterior horn of the spinal cord to the relevant muscle(s) -- the lower motor neuron.

One major characteristic used to identify a lower motor neuron lesion is flaccid paralysis - paralysis accompanied by muscle loss. This is in contrast to a upper motor neuron lesion, which often presents with spastic paralysis - paralysis accompanied by severe hypertonia.

Symptoms

The extensor Babinski reflex is usually absent. Muscle paresis/paralysis, hypotonia/atonia, and hyporeflexia/areflexia are usually seen immediately following an insult. Muscle wasting, fasciculations and fibrillations are typically signs of end-stage muscle denervation and are seen over a longer time period. Another feature is the segmentation of symptoms - only muscles innervated by the damaged nerves will be symptomatic.

Etiology

Most common causes of lower motor neuron injuries are trauma to peripheral nerves that sever the axons and poliomyelitis - a virus that selectively attacks ventral horn cells.Disuse atrophy of the muscle occurs i.e,shrinkage of muscle fibre...
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