(LPA) is a phospholipid
derivative that can act as a signaling
LPA acts as a potent mitogen
due to its activation of three high-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors
, and LPA3
(also known as EDG2, EDG4, and EDG7). Additional, newly identified LPA receptors include LPA4 (p2y9/GPR23), LPA5 (GPR92) and LPA6 (GPR87).
Because of its ability to stimulate cell proliferation
, aberrant LPA-signaling has been linked to cancer in numerous ways. Dysregulation of autotaxin
or the LPA receptors can lead to hyperproliferation, which may contribute to oncogenesis and metastasis
LPA may be the cause pruritus (itching) in individuals with cholestatic (impaired bile flow) diseases.
Downstream of LPA receptor activation, the small GTPase Rho
can be activated, subsequently activating Rho kinase. This can lead to the formation of stress fibers and cell migration through the inhibition of myosin light-chain phosphatase
There are a number of potential routes to its biosynthesis, but the most well-characterized is by the action of a lysophospholipase D
, which removes the choline
group from lysophosphatidylcholine
Lysophosphatidic acid is also an intermediate in the synthesis of phosphatidic acid