Mancur Lloyd Olson, Jr.
(; January 22, 1932–February 19, 1998) was a leading American economist and social scientist
who, at the time of his death, worked at the University of Maryland, College Park
. Among other areas, he made contributions to institutional economics
on the role of private property
, taxation, public goods
, collective action
and contract rights in economic development
.Olson focused on the logical basis of interest group membership and participation. The reigning political theories
of his day granted groups an almost primordial
status. Some appealed to a natural human instinct for herding
, others ascribed the formation of groups that are rooted in kinship
to the process of modernization
. Olson offered a radically different account of the logical basis of organized collective action.
In his first book, Public Goods and the Theory of Groups
, he theorized that “only a separate and ‘selective’ incentive will stimulate a rational individual in a latent group to act in a group-oriented way”; that is, only a benefit reserved strictly for group members will motivate one to join and contribute to the group. This means that individuals will act collectively to provide private goods
, but not to provide public goods
In 1982, he expanded the scope of his earlier work in an attempt to explain The Rise and Decline of Nations
. The idea is that small distributional coalitions
tend to form over time in countries. Groups like cotton-farmers, steel-producers, and labor......