Mathabhanga is located at . It has an average elevation of .
India census, Mathabhanga had a population of 21,110. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Mathabhanga has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 81%, and female literacy is 71%. In Mathabhanga, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.