The highest point is Warges, at 2688 m above sea level, at the southern end of the range, separated by a valley from the rest of the range. The 2375 metres high Ol Doinyo Lenkiyo mountain is the highest peak of the middle of the range. There is also a breast shaped hill locally known as Sweet Sixteen in the range.
The area is isolated, and holds forests of juniper and cycads. It is home to elephants and other large mammals, and was one of the last places in northern Kenya to have wild Black Rhinos. The last Black Rhino in the Mathew's was poached out in the 1990s. The Mathew's are also home to the Samburu people. The mountain range is a sky island: surrounded by plains, with Ndoto Mountains to the north and the Karisia hills to the west. A number of the species in the Mathew's have evolved independently and the diversity of the forest is of great conservation value. Part has been designated as a wildlife sanctuary.