Middle Indo-Aryan languages

Middle Indo-Aryan Languages

Middle Indo-Aryan languages

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The Middle Indo-Aryan (Middle Indic) languages are the early medieval dialects of the Indo-Aryan languages, the descendants of the Old Indo-Aryan dialects such as Sanskrit, and the predecessors of the late medieval languages such as Apabhramsha or Abahatta, which eventually evolved into the contemporary Indo-Aryan languages, including Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Oriya, Bengali, and Punjabi. The term Prakrit is also often applied to these languages (prakrita literally means "natural" as opposed to sanskrita, which literally means "constructed" or "refined"). Modern scholars such as Shapiro follow this classification by including all Middle Indo-Aryan languages under the rubric of "Prakrits", while others emphasise the independent development of these languages, often separated from the Sanskrit by social and geographic differences.Shapiro, Michael C. Hindi. <u>Facts about the world's languages: An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present.</u> Ed. Jane Garry, and Carl Rubino: New England Publishing Associates, 2001..


The Indo-Aryan languages are commonly assigned to three major groups - Old, Middle and New Indo-Aryan -, a linguistic and not strictly chronological classification, since Classical Sanskrit co-existed with Middle Indic vernaculars. And a number of their morphophonological and lexical features betray the fact that they are not direct continuations of Sanskrit,...
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