canon of 108 Upanishads
is headed by 10 Mukhya
Upanishads. These are the ten oldest Upanishads, known to and commented upon by the 9th century scholar Shankara
means "principal", "chief", or "eminent". Also known as Dashopanishad
s, these ten Mukhya Upanishads probably all predate the Common Era
, and they are accepted as śruti
by all Hindus. They are listed with their associated Veda ():
- , (ŚYV) "The Inner Ruler"
- (SV) "Who moves the world?"
- (KYV) "Death as Teacher"
- , (AV) "The Breath of Life"
- (AV) "Two modes of Knowing"
- (AV) "Consciousness and its phases"
- (KYV) "From Food to Joy"
- , () "The Microcosm of Man"
- (SV) "Song and Sacrifice"
Linguistically, the oldest of these () belong to the "Brahmana" period of Vedic Sanskrit
, predating Panini
. A middle layer () belongs to the "Sutra" period of late Vedic Sanskrit, roughly contemporary with Panini, and the youngest are in early Classical Sanskrit
, approximately contemporary with the Bhagavad Gita
(roughly dating to the period from the 4th century BCE to the beginning of the Common Era
, or the Mauryan