Naftaly Frenkel

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right|framed|Naftaly FrenkelNaftaly Aronovich Frenkel (; (1883 Haifa – 1960 Moscow) was a Soviet citizen and Chekist (member of the Soviet secret police). Frenkel is best known for his role in the organisation of work in the Gulag, starting from the forced labor camp of the Solovetsky Islands, which is recognised as one of the earliest sites of the Gulag.


Naftaly Frenkel's origins are uncertain. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn called him a "Turkish Jew born in Constantinople".Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, New York, 1973, vol. II, p. 76Malsagov, S.A., Island Hell: A Soviet Prison in the Far North, trans. F.H. Lyon, London, 1926, pp. 61-73 Yet another claimed that Frenkel came from Odessa.Shiryaev, Boris, Neugasimaya lampada, Moscow, 1991, p. 137-8 Yet more said he was from Austria, or Palestine, or that he had worked in the Ford motor plant in the USA. His prisoner registration card states clearly that he was born in Haifa, then part of the Ottoman Empire. From Haifa he made his way (perhaps via Odessa, perhaps via Austria-Hungary) to the Soviet Union where he described himself as a 'merchant'.Rozanov, Mikhail, Solovetskii kontslager v monastire, Moscow, 1979, pp. 174-91


In 1923 he was arrested for "illegally crossing...
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