New Australia

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New Australia was a utopian socialist settlement in Paraguay initiated by the Australian advocates of the New Australia philosophy. The colony was initiated officially on 28 September 1893 as Colonia Nueva Australia and comprised 238 adults and children.


The New Australia Co-operative Settlement Association, known more briefly as the New Australia Movement, was initiated by William Lane during 1892. Lane was a major publicist of Australian labour politics, and had initiated Australia's first labour newspaper – the Queensland Worker during 1890. A dispute among Australian labour activists inspired Lane to organize a socialist utopia outside Australia. Lane's ideal
  1. A common-hold, rather than a common-wealth.
  2. A brotherhood of English-speaking Whites.
  3. Preservation of the 'Colour-Line'.
  4. Life marriage.
  5. Communism.
  6. Teetotalism.

His concept of 'common-hold' was that each member of a society should be able to withdraw their proportion of the society's wealth if they chose to leave.

Lane's was not the only influence urging Australians at the time to develop a socialist community; utopian Edward Bellamy's novel Looking Backward was also popular with socialists and caused many urban devotees of Lane to expect that they would live in luxury in a socialist commune like that of Bellamy's fiction.

Paraguay was chosen as the site of the settlement....
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