2OCU was established as No.2(F) Operational Training Unit in April 1942. During the Second World War the Unit provided training in a wide range of aircraft, including Kittyhawks, Vengeances, Ansons, Boomerangs, Spitfires and Oxfords. No.2(F) Operational Training Unit was disbanded in March 1947.
2OCU was re-formed in March 1952 to provide training on the CAC Sabre jet fighter. Since then it has provided conversion training on all the RAAF's fighter aircraft, including the Mirage III and F/A-18. The unit has also provided advanced jet aircraft training using Macchi MB-326, though this role is now filled by No. 76 Squadron.