The partition of Korea following the Second World War led to a considerable cross-border movement, which included writers moving from North to South or from South to North.
North Korea's subsequent literary tradition was shaped and controlled by the State. "Guidelines for Juche Literature" published by the official Choson Writers' Alliance emphasised that literature must extoll the country's leader, Kim Il-sung, and, later, Kim Jong-il. Only members of the Writers' Alliance are authorised to have their works published.
North Korean writers abroad
The DPRK Ministry of Culture promoted North Korean literature in Russia and China during the Cold War era. Several Soviet Koreanologists published studies on DPRK literature and translations in Russian. Among the novelists translated into Russian and Chinese were: