The town was the property of the Vartemberg family as early as in the year 1325, in 1516 it passed into the hands of the Pernstein family and since 1548 it was in the holding of the Wallensteins. In 1569 Nový Bydžov was exempt by payment from servitude and became the royal dowry town. During the years 1751-1784 it was the royal seat of the newly created Nový Bydžov region which included the Krkonoše Mountains from Vrchlabí through Jilemnice, Nová Paka, Jičín, Hořice, Nový Bydžov, Chlumec nad Cidlinou and Poděbrady as far as Sadská. In 1784 the seat of the region was transferred to Jičín due to its position, but the name of the region remained the same until 1850.
Nový Bydžov was then from 1850 until 1960 the district center. After districts had been abolished it did not cease to be the natural center of the region.
Historical and cultural monuments
Gothic church of St. Lawrence (early 14th century)
old Jewish cemetery (founded in 1520), the third largest in this country