The 1993 novel Terminal Compromise by Winn Schwartau followed the life of an NSA agent. It was one of, if not the, first novels under copyright to be published on the Internet by a for profit publishing firm. It was released as shareware in 1993. It is currently available from .
In the novel Zeitgeist by Bruce Sterling, the physical world could be shaped by ideas, and the NSA's orbiting cameras forced the normal rules to apply, and were used as a threat against the main character, who understood and used the true nature of the universe.