Nysa (Caria)

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Nysa (Ancient Greek: Νῦσα) was an ancient Greek city of Caria in Anatolia, whose remnants are now in the Sultanhisar district of Aydın Province of Turkey east of the Ionian city of Ephesus.

The city was also known in antiquity as Athymbra (Ancient Greek Ἄθυμβρα); according to Strabo, who started his life of study in Nysa (which was an important center of learning in the 1st century BC), "Nysa resulted from a synoecism of three towns that were founded by three brothers, Athymbros, Athymbrados, and Hydrelos. Undoubtedly Athymbra served as the kernel for the later Nysa. The townspeople were still called Athymbrianoi in a letter sent ... in 281 BC."Getzel M. Cohen, The Hellenistic Settlements in Europe, the Islands, and Asia Minor (University of California Press, 1996: ISBN 0520083296), p. 257. The city had been dedicated to Dionysus when it was founded, perhaps by Antiochus I Soter in the 3rd century BC, and it was still famous as a city of scholars in the 2nd century AD. For about a thousand years after that the city suffered from the depredations of the Christians, the Muslims and the Turks, and it was finally abandoned after being sacked by Tamerlane in 1402.

There are important ruins on the site from the Hellenistic period, the Roman period and the Byzantine era. Much of the open air Greek theatre and its walled entrances are still intact. The library currently has three walls. There are remnants of a gymnasion, a Roman bath and...
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