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Peptidyl arginine deiminase, type IV, also known as PADI4, is a human protein which in humans is encoded by the PADI4 gene.

Molecular biology

The human gene is found on the short arm of Chromosome 1 near the telomere (1p36.13). It is located on the Watson strand and is 55,806 bases long. The protein is 663 amino acids long with a molcular weight of 74,095 Da.


This gene is a member of a gene family which encodes enzymes responsible for the conversion of arginine to citrulline residues. This gene may play a role in granulocyte and macrophage development leading to inflammation and immune response.. PADI4 plays a role in the epigenetics, the deimination of arginines on histones 3 and 4 can act antagonistically to arginine methylation (Chromatin modifications and their function, Kouzarides 2007, Cell, review)

The protein may be found in oligomers and binds 5 calcium ions per subunit. It catalyses the reaction:

  • Protein L-arginine + H<sub>2</sub>O = protein L-citrulline + NH<sub>3</sub>

Subcellular and tissue distribution

It is normally found in the cytoplasm, nucleus and in cytoplasmic granules of eosinophils and neutrophils. It is not expressed in peripheral monocytes or lymphocytes. It is also expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovial...
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