The Palmyrene Empire
(260–273) was a splinter empire that broke off of the Roman Empire
during the Crisis of the Third Century
. It encompassed the Roman provinces
and large parts of Asia Minor
The Palmyrene Empire was ruled by Queen Zenobia
for her infant son Vaballathus
. The capital of the short-lived empire was the city of Palmyra
Crisis of the Third Century
Despite a number of crises, the Roman Empire
had stood firm since its inception under Augustus
. But after emperor Alexander Severus
was murdered by soldiers in 235, Roman legions
were defeated in a campaign against Sassanid Persia
, and the empire fell apart. General after general squabbled over control of the empire, the frontiers were neglected and subjected to frequent raids by Carpians
, and outright attacks from aggressive Sassanids in the east.
Finally, by 258, the attacks were coming from within, when the Empire broke up in to three separate competing states. The Roman provinces
broke off to form the Gallic Empire
Since Rome was unable to protect the eastern provinces against the Sassanids, then-governor Septimius Odaenathus
decided to use the substantial legions he had at his disposal - among them the famed Legio XII Fulminata
- to defend his provinces, rather than intervene in the struggles for Rome.
Establishment of the Empire
Septimius Odaenathus was assassinated and his son Vaballathus was made king (rex......