, meaning "cotton castle" in Turkish
, is a natural site in Denizli Province
in southwestern Turkey
. The city contains hot springs and travertines
, terraces of carbonate minerals left by the flowing water. It is located in Turkey's Inner Aegean
region, in the River Menderes
valley, which has a temperate climate for most of the year.
The ancient Greco-Roman and Byzantine city of Hierapolis
was built on top of the white "castle" which is in total about long, wide and high. It can be seen from the hills on the opposite side of the valley in the town of Denizli
, 20 km away.
Tourism is and has been a major industry. People have bathed in its pools for thousands of years. As recently as the mid-20th century, hotels were built over the ruins of Heropolis, causing considerable damage. An approach road was built from the valley over the terraces, and motor bikes were allowed to go up and down the slopes. When the area was declared a World Heritage Site
, the hotels were demolished and the road removed and replaced with artificial pools. Wearing shoes in the water is prohibited to protect the deposits.
Pamukkale's terraces are made of travertine
, a sedimentary rock deposited by water from the hot springs.
In this area, there are 17 hot water springs in which the temperature ranges from to . The water that emerges from the spring is transported to the head of the travertine terraces and deposits calcium carbonate on a section long... Read More