Path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC)is a method in the of .
The equations often are applied assuming that quantum exchange does not matter (the particles are assumed to be Boltzmann particles, not the physicallyrealistic fermion and boson particles). The theory usually is applied to calculate thermodynamic properties such as theinternal energy or free energy.As with all Monte Carlo method based approaches, a large number of points must be calculated. As more "replicas" are used to integrate the pathintegral, the more quantum and the less classical the result is. Because it is a statistical sampling method, PIMC takes into account all theanharmonicity, and because it is quantum, it takes into account all quantum effects (with the exception of the exchange interaction usually).