Paulo Alfeu Junqueira Duarte

Paulo Alfeu Junqueira Duarte

Paulo Alfeu Junqueira Duarte

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Paulo Duarte full name Paulo Alfeu Junqueira Duarte (1899–1984) was a Brazilian archaeologist and humanist. He was the first person to practice archaeology on a large scale in Brazil.

Duarte excavated hundreds of shell middens throughout Brazil, and created the Pre-Historical State Commission of São Paulo, housed at the University of São Paulo, to preserve the objects he discovered. He also conducted excavations along the coast of São Paulo state, which discovered a much-publicized pre-historic human skull known as "Miss Sambaqui."

In addition to his archaeological work, Duarte was a leading proponent of Brazilian culture, folklore and art. He argued vociferously for the preservation of the unique cultures of the indigenous peoples in Brazil. With Mário de Andrade and Sérgio Milliet, he cofounded the São Paulo Department of Culture (Departamento de Cultura e Recreação da Prefeitura Municipal de São Paulo) in 1935. In 1937, in retaliation for various public remarks, he was exiled from Brazil by the government of Getúlio Vargas.

Duarte returned to Brazil after World War II, and brought with him a number of European archaeologists he had met while in exile. With their assistance, the excavation of pre-historic Brazilian settlements began in earnest in 1954. Due to several sensational discoveries including "Miss Sambaqui", Duarte became something of a celebrity. Taking advantage of his fame to remark publicly on political issues, he came once...
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