- For other scripts that have been used to write the Persian language, see Persian language – Orthography.
The Perso-Arabic script
is a writing system
that is originally based on the Arabic alphabet
. Originally used exclusively for the Arabic language
, the Arabic script
was modified to match the Persian language
, adding four letters: , , , and . Many languages which use the Perso-Arabic script add other letters. Besides the Persian alphabet itself, the Perso-Arabic script has been applied to the Urdu alphabet
, Sindhi alphabet
, Saraiki alphabet
, Kurdish Sorani alphabet
), Ottoman Turkish alphabet
, Balochi alphabet
, Punjabi Shahmukhi script
, and several others.
In order to represent non-Arabic sounds, new letters were created by adding dots, lines, and other shapes to existing letters. For example, the retroflex
sounds of Urdu
are represented orthographically by adding a small ط above their non-retroflex counterparts: and . The voiceless retroflex fricative
is represented in writing by adding a dot above and below the letter, resulting in . The close central rounded vowel
is written by writing two , resulting in .
The Perso-Arabic script is exclusively written cursively
. That is, the majority of letters in a word connect to each other. This is also implemented on computers. Whenever the Perso-Arabic script is typed, the computer connects the letters to each other. Unconnected letters are not widely accepted.... Read More