Proton NMR

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Proton NMR (also Hydrogen-1 NMR, or <sup>1</sup>H NMR) is the application of nuclear magnetic resonance in NMR spectroscopy with respect to hydrogen-1 nuclei within the molecules of a substance, in order to determine the structure of its molecules.R. M. Silverstein, G. C. Bassler and T. C. Morrill, Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, 5th Ed., Wiley, 1991. In samples where natural hydrogen (H) is used, practically all of the hydrogen consists of the isotope <sup>1</sup>H (hydrogen-1; i.e. having a proton for a nucleus).

Simple NMR spectra are recorded in solution, and solvent protons must not be allowed to interfere. Deuterated (deuterium = <sup>2</sup>H, often symbolized as D) solvents especially for use in NMR are preferred, e.g. deuterated water, D<sub>2</sub>O , deuterated acetone, (CD<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>CO, deuterated methanol, CD<sub>3</sub>OD, deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide, (CD<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO, and deuterated chloroform, CDCl<sub>3</sub>. However, a solvent without hydrogen, such as carbon tetrachloride, CCl<sub>4</sub> or carbon disulphide, CS<sub>2</sub>, may also be used.

Historically, deuterated solvents were supplied with a small amount (typically 0.1 %) of tetramethylsilane (TMS) as an internal standard for calibrating the chemical shifts of each analyte proton. TMS is...
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