The area is a hilly one: in the north is Monte del Chianti; Monte Amiata is the highest point at 1738 m; and in the south is Monte Cetona. To the west are the Colline Metallifere (“Metallic Hills”),<!-- ? --> whilst the Val di Chiana lies to east.
Historically, the province corresponds to the former republic of Siena.
The chief occupations are agricultural (wheat, grapes and fruit) and silk culture. The wine known as Chianti is produced here as well as in other parts of Tuscany: the Chianti Colli Senesi, however, is limited to this province.