The Pennsylvania Railroad's class FF1 was an American electric locomotive, a single prototype numbered #3931 and nicknamed "Big Liz" by its crews. It was built in 1917 for the task of hauling freight trains across the Allegheny Mountains, which the PRR planned to electrify; this was never accomplished. In testing, "Big Liz" proved workable but simply too powerful for the freight cars of the time. On the front of the train, it regularly snapped couplers, while when used as a pusher on the rear its force was sufficient to destroy the cars it pushed.
It had a 1-C+C-1 wheel arrangement and consisted of two half-frames, articulated together in the center. Each frame mounted a pair of AC induction motors driving a jackshaft through gearing and a spring drive; side rods then drove the wheels.