PTEN (gene)

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Description:
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the PTEN gene. Mutations of this gene are a step in the development of many cancers.

PTEN acts as a tumor suppressor gene through the action of its phosphatase protein product. This phosphatase is involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, preventing cells from growing and dividing too rapidly. It is one of the targets of an oncomiR, MIRN21.

This gene was identified as a tumor suppressor that is mutated in a large number of cancers at high frequency. The protein encoded by this gene is a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase. It contains a tensin-like domain as well as a catalytic domain similar to that of the dual specificity protein tyrosine phosphatases. Unlike most of the protein tyrosine phosphatases, this protein preferentially dephosphorylates phosphoinositide substrates. It negatively regulates intracellular levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate in cells and functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating Akt/PKB signaling pathway.

Function and structure

The corresponding PTEN protein is found in almost all tissues in the body. PTEN protein acts as a phosphatase to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol -trisphosphate (PtdIns (3,4,5)P<sub>3</sub> or PIP<sub>3</sub>). PTEN specifically catalyses...
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