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The PZL P.1 was a Polish fighter, designed by the engineer Zygmunt Puławski, manufactured by the PZL state-owned factory. It remained a prototype, but it was the first of the Polish PZL gull wing fighter series, leading to the PZL P.7, PZL P.11 and PZL P.24.

Design and development

Among the first tasks of newly created in 1928 PZL aircraft works was to design a modern fighter for the Polish Air Force. As a result, a construction team led by the talented young designer Zygmunt Puławski designed an all-metal, metal-covered monoplane fighter, designated PZL P.1. Puławski's invention was a high gull wing, to give a pilot an optimal view, without an upper wing before his eyes, like in classic parasol monoplanes and biplanes of that time. The wing, supported with struts, could be thin in its root part, at joint with a fuselage. Other new idea was a scissors-like fixed undercarriage, with shock absorbers hidden in the fuselage. The P.1 was powered with a 630 hp Hispano-Suiza inline engine.

The first prototype was flown in August 1929 by Bolesław Orliński. In the first flight, the wing leading edge distorted, but Orliński saved the aircraft and possibly the whole program. In late 1929, after static trials, the prototype was modified and strengthened. In March 1930, the second prototype was flown (P.1/II). It introduced, among other changes, a revised shape of rudder, similar to Pulawski's next fighters.

The construction of P.1 was met with interest around the world. The second...
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