R. v. Malmo-Levine; R. v. Caine
3 S.C.R. 571, 2003 SCC 74, is a leading constitutional decision of the Supreme Court of Canada
. The Court rejected a constitutional challenge of the criminalization of marijuana
The decision involves two cases. The first was where David Malmo-Levine
, a "marijuana/freedom activist", ran an organization in East Vancouver
called the "Harm Reduction Club", which attempts to reduce the harm associated with marijuana use by educating users and the public about the drug and provide the drug at cost. In December of 1996 the police raided the Harm Reduction Club and seized 316 grams of marijuana charging Malmo-Levine with possession for the purpose of trafficking.
The second case involved the 1993 arrest of Victor Caine for possession of marijuana. Caine was in his van by the ocean when two RCMP
officers approached him. He was stopped and a roach (0.5 gram) was found on him.
Both Caine and Malmo-Levine challenged the constitutionality of the criminalization of marijuana under the Narcotics Control Act
Malmo-Levine's argument focused on whether there should be a requirement of harm for criminal law
. He argued that the constitutional power to enact criminal law under section 91(27) of the Constitution Act, 1867
is limited to conduct that causes harm. He further argued that the "harm principle" should be a principle of fundamental justice
under section 7
of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms