While radio communications were modified to address problems discovered after the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, investigations into the radio communications during the September 11th attacks discovered that communication systems and protocols that distinguished each department was hampered by the lack of interoperability, damaged or failed network infrastructure during the attack, and overwhelmed by simultaneous communication between superiors and subordinates.
A rough time line of the incident could include:
08:46 hrs.: American 11 crashes into the North Tower, a.k.a 1 World Trade Center, (0 minutes elapsed time).
09:03 hrs.: United 175 crashes into the South Tower, a.k.a. 2 World Trade Center, (17 minutes elapsed time).
09:59 hrs.: South Tower, a.k.a. 2 World Trade Center collapses, (56 minutes after aircraft impact, 73 minutes elapsed time).
10:28 hrs.: North Tower, a.k.a 1 World Trade Center collapses, (102 minutes elapsed time and post-impact).
The scale of the incident was described in the National Commission report on the attacks as unprecedented. In roughly fifteen minutes from 8:46 to 9:03 am, over a thousand police, fire, and emergency medical services (EMS) staff arrived at the scene.National Commission on...... Read More