Rashidun Caliphate

Rashidun Caliphate

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Rashidun Caliphate

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The Rashidun Caliphate (), comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death in 632, Year 10 A.H.. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the largest empire in history up until that time.Rein Taagepera (1979), "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.", Social Science History, Vol. 3, 115-138 It is also known as the Patriarchal Caliphate.


After Muhammad's death in 632, the Medinan Ansar debated which of them should succeed the Prophet in running the affairs of the Muslims while the household of the Prophet was busy in his burial. Umar (who is from the Quraysh) and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah pledged their loyalty to Abu Bakr, with the Ansar and the Quraish soon following suit. Abu Bakr thus became the first Khalifa Rasul Allah (Successor of the Messenger of God), and embarked on campaigns to propagate the Muslim Religion and Deliver the Message of God. First, though, he would have to subdue the Arabian tribes which had gone back on their oaths of allegiance to Islam and the Islamic community. As a Khalifa or Caliph he was not a monarch and never claimed such a title nor did his three successors do so.


Succession of Abu Bakr

Troubles emerged soon after Abu Bakr's succession, threatening the unity and...
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