Renal sodium reabsorption

Renal Sodium Reabsorption

Renal sodium reabsorption

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Renal reabsorption of sodium (Na<sup>+</sup>) is a part of renal physiology. It uses Na-H antiport, Na-glucose symport, sodium ion channels (minor). It is stimulated by angiotensin II and aldosterone, and inhibited by atrial natriuretic peptide.

It is very efficient, since more than 25,000 mmoles/day of sodium is filtered into the nephron, but only ~100 mmoles/day, or less than 0.4% remains in the final urine.

Proximal tubule

Most of the reabsorption (65%) occurs in the proximal tubule. In the latter part it is favoured by an electrochemical driving force, but initially it needs the cotransporter SGLT and the Na-H antiporter. Water is reabsorbed to the same degree, resulting in the concentration in the end of the proximal tubule being the same as in the beginning. In other words, the reabsorption in the proximal tubule is isosmotic.

Loop of Henle

Sodium is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb of loop of Henle, by Na-K-2Cl symporter andNa-H antiporter. It goes against its chemical driving force, but the high electrical driving force renders the overall electrochemical driving force positive anyway, availing some sodium to diffuse passively either the transcellular or paracellular way.

Distal tubule

In the distal convoluted tubule sodium is transported against an electrochemical gradient by sodium-chloride symporters.

Collecting duct

The principal cells are the sodium-transporting cells in the collecting duct...
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