Reverse-transcriptase inhibitor

Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor

Reverse-transcriptase inhibitor

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Description:
Reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) are a class of antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection, tumors, and cancer. RTIs inhibit activity of reverse transcriptase, a viral DNA polymerase enzyme that retroviruses need to reproduce.

Mechanism

When HIV infects a cell, reverse transcriptase copies the viral single stranded RNA genome into a double-stranded viral DNA. The viral DNA is then integrated into the host chromosomal DNA, which then allows host cellular processes, such as transcription and translation to reproduce the virus. RTIs block reverse transcriptase's enzymatic function and prevent completion of synthesis of the double-stranded viral DNA, thus preventing HIV from multiplying.

A similar process occurs with other types of viruses. The hepatitis B virus, for example, carries its genetic material in the form of DNA, and employs a RNA-dependent DNA polymerase to replicate. Some of the same compounds used as RTIs can also block HBV replication; when used in this way they are referred to as polymerase inhibitors.

Types

RTIs come in three forms:
  • Nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NARTIs or NRTIs)
  • Nucleotide analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NtARTIs or NtRTIs)
  • Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
The mode of action of NRTIs and NtRTIs is essentially the same; they are analogues of the naturally occurring deoxynucleotides needed to synthesize the viral DNA and they...
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