Rif Republic

Rif Republic

Former Country
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Rif Republic

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The Republic of the Rif (full name: The Confederal Republic of the Tribes of the Rif), (Amazigh: Tagduda n Arif, ) was created in September 1921, when the people of the Rif (the Riffians) revolted and declared their independence from Spanish occupation as well as from the Moroccan sultan.

Its capital city was Ajdir, its currency the Rif Republic Riffan, its national Independence Day was held on 18 September, and its total population was an estimated 550,000 people. The independence of the Rif was proclaimed on 18 September 1921, with Mohand Abd el-Krim as its president or leader. The Republic of the Rif was formally constituted 1 February 1923, with Abd el-Krim as head of state. Its prime minister, from July 1923 to 27 May 1926, was ben Hajj Hatmi and General Driss Riffi Temsamani was named Basha or Governor of the Rif. It was dissolved by Spanish and French occupation forces on 27 May 1926, after long and bloody battles of the Rif War in which German-made chemical weapons were used against the Berber populations by Spanish occupation forces.


The Berbers fiercely resisted both Spanish and French incursions into Morocco. However, the Berbers had been unable to consolidate power, and had continually returned to ethnic fighting and tribal division. The Great Revolt of 1912 against French rule was a complete failure due to the fact that any tribal alliances created during the Great Revolt came apart within months.

A single leader, Muhammad Ibn......
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