Four swimmers competed for Russia at the 1912 Games. It was the nation's debut in swimming. None of the Russian swimmers took part in the semifinals of any event; Baimakov had advanced unopposed from the quarterfinals in the 400 metre breaststroke, but did not start in the semifinals.
Ranks given for each swimmer are within the heat.
35 athletes competed for Russia. It was the second appearance of the nation in athletics, after having a single marathon runner in 1908. Aleksandr Schultz's 11th-place finish in the decathlon was Russia's best placement.